The Federal False Claims Act imposes penalties on any company or individual who defrauds the government. This law applies to any activity funded by U.S. taxpayers. The District of Columbia and at least 29 states and local governments have also enacted laws modeled on the Federal False Claims Act. The laws have qui tam provisions, which allow individuals to sue on behalf of the government and obtain a share of any recovery.
For assistance in pursuing a qui tam action and understanding the Federal False Claims act, you will require knowledgeable whistleblower representation.
Under the Federal False Claims Act, a defendant found guilty of defrauding the government is subject to pay three times the damages caused by the fraud and civil penalties, which are adjusted for inflation and now the top amount is more than $20,000 per act. The government may also use information it receives in this process to pursue cases for criminal liability. Generally, the state laws also impose triple damages and civil fines against defendants found guilty of fraud against a state government.
Under federal and state False Claims Act laws, an individual has the right to sue. If the fraudulent activity harms both the federal government and a state with an appropriate False Claims Act, it is possible to sue under more than one law at the same time. If an individual knows about a fraud which is damaging to more than one government, they should be sure to raise this issue with a qui tam lawyer. It may significantly increase the potential recovery available, and the scope of the case..
Any truly fraudulent activity that involves government funds could be the subject of a False Claims Act case. Fraudulent practices that have been the subject of successful qui tam lawsuits include:
The person who files a successful False Claims Act case is able to share in the amount of money recovered by the government. Under federal law, the percentage of the recovery ranges from 15%-30%. The percentage of recovery for claims filed under state law differ from state to state.
These laws recognize a difference in the percentages awarded based on the action the government takes to pursue the case. For example, under the Federal False Claims Act, the amount awarded to the plaintiff is between 15% and 25%, provided that the government decided to join the case. This process is often phrased as the government “acting to intervene” in the case and it historically has been in the best interest of the whistleblower (as will be illustrated below). If the government declines to intervene and the whistleblower goes forward and obtains a recovery in the case, the minimum award under the law is 25% percent and the maximum is 30%.
Government involvement does not negatively impact recovery. In fact, the chances of an individual’s case being successful in the long run is vastly improved by the government’s (any government’s) decision to intervene. The process is complicated, and the stronger the case that an individual and their attorney can present to the government, the more likely the government will be to intervene. This leads to a higher probability that the individual will succeed. However, the laws do allow for a whistleblower to pursue the case after the government has declined to take it.
Under the federal law, there are rights for a whistleblower who files a successful False Claims Act case. An employer faces penalties for any retaliation against such a plaintiff including double back pay, re-instatement and special damages.
Generally, a qui tam lawsuit is under seal when it is filed with the court. This means the plaintiff can ensure that it is highly confidential during the investigation process. Only the government officials who handle the case are initially aware of it. The violator often is the plaintiff’s employer, and they are not informed as to the identity of the whistleblower. The seal is usually extended by permission of the court beyond the initial 60 day period stated in the federal law to facilitate the government’s confidential investigation. The length of these extensions and the time the case remains secret can depend on the time the government may take to investigate the claims and the willingness of the Court to grant such extensions.
When the investigation is completed, the government will decide if they will join (take over) the litigation. Otherwise, the plaintiff and his or her lawyer have the option of proceeding without the government.
The case may seem obvious to a whistleblower who is working for an employer committing the fraud. The whistleblower may know more about the industry than anyone else involved in the case. Explaining the industry, the laws and regulations involved as well as sifting through all the facts of the case can be complicated. In addition, of course, protecting the rights of the whistleblower is crucial to a successful outcome.
Becoming a whistleblower may be complicated and stressful, but there are lawyers in Washington, DC, who can help you through the process.